When John Cage was asked by Moira and William Roth about the differences between Marcel Duchamp’s idea of chance and his own, he referred to Duchamp’s Erratum Musicale (1913), saying that he personally would not be satisfied with pulling notes out of a hat, but that he was delighted with this in Duchamp’s work. Cage indicated that he preferred his version of chance to be more intricate, but that, crucially, the main difference in their perspectives on chance “probably came from the fact that [Duchamp] was involved with ideas through seeing, and I was involved through hearing”. Cage goes on to define Duchamp’s use of chance as a form of translation, based in language, in contrast to his own goal, which is “to set a process going that is not related to anything”.